Racial Achievement Gap Wide in Davis

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The Davis Enterprise reported last night that while students in Davis overall performed very well on the Academic Performance Index, there was also a very wide gap between the highest group Asians and white/ non-Hispanic, and blacks and Hispanics.

Davis students from an Asian background scored highest as a group, with a 934 API. White (non-Hispanic) students in Davis score 884, African-American students scored 758 and Hispanic/Latino students scored 721.

This makes for a gap of more than 210 points between the highest scoring ethnic subgroup and the lowest. Those figures undoubtedly will be discussed by the Davis district’s new Achievement Gap Task Force, which was formed several months ago and is now meeting regularly.

Socioeconomically disadvantaged students in Davis scored 707, while students with disabilities scored 668.

However there is some good news in these figures:

“All our other subgroups demonstrate gains,” [Clark] Bryant [director of curriculum and instruction for the Davis school district] said, “with the largest gains being among our English learners (26 points) and our students with disabilities (23 points).”

What this appears to demonstrate is that many of the programs in Davis are indeed working. Parents at Valley Oak Elementary school have cited the success of the English Learner’s program as a reason for the school to remain open despite other data that suggested perhaps a decline in enrollment. The suggestion was the school district should not close down a successful school and concern was expressed by both parents and teachers that in fact the program would be disrupted if moved from one location to another.

On the other side of the argument, several members of the board and administrators suggested that the programs could be relocated without disruption to the students. That the district needed to use its resources to continue its successful programs to benefit all students.

To me this continues to demonstrate the vulnerability of students both from disadvantaged and racial minority backgrounds In Davis there is a considerable gap between the achievement of white and Asian students and those of black and Hispanic students. Because of the commitment by the school district that gap lowered over the past year, but it remains unacceptably high for a city and district as well off as this one.

On a statewide basis, Jack O’Connell, the state superintendent of public instruction was alarmed by this racial divide.

“I am deeply concerned that significant gaps exist between the API results for different subgroups of students,” he said in a news release. “I have begun an intensive effort to find ways to close the gap that exists between successful students who are often white or Asian, and financially well off, and struggling students who are too often poor, Hispanic, African American, English learners or with a disability… As a state, we have a moral, ethical and economic obligation to address the needs of every group of students.”

It is very clear to me that we must continue our commitment in public education to closing this gap for the very reasons cited by Mr. O’Connell.

Education is the solution to many of our social problems of inequality and poverty. It leads students to a better life when they are successful, but unfortunately education is not performed in a vacuum and we need to do what we can to help those students who are most vulnerable and of the greatest need. That perhaps was the saddest part of what happened last week with Valley Oak–that those students had what appeared to be a value asset and tool taken away from them.

—Doug Paul Davis reporting

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About The Author

David Greenwald is the founder, editor, and executive director of the Davis Vanguard. He founded the Vanguard in 2006. David Greenwald moved to Davis in 1996 to attend Graduate School at UC Davis in Political Science. He lives in South Davis with his wife Cecilia Escamilla Greenwald and three children.

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44 thoughts on “Racial Achievement Gap Wide in Davis”

  1. Anonymous

    These results underscore the fact that while some improvements have been made, we’ve still got a long ways to go to close the achievement gap in Davis. Interestingly, the much-ballyhooed Achievement Gap Task Force has seen numerous resignations, including its chair, in the last few weeks. It seems that many members are citing the poor support from the District and the fact that the Board is speaking out of both sides of its mouth on this issue. I guess I thought that if a person ran on the issue of closing the gap, they would actually spend time working on that issue once elected … silly me!

  2. Anonymous

    These results underscore the fact that while some improvements have been made, we’ve still got a long ways to go to close the achievement gap in Davis. Interestingly, the much-ballyhooed Achievement Gap Task Force has seen numerous resignations, including its chair, in the last few weeks. It seems that many members are citing the poor support from the District and the fact that the Board is speaking out of both sides of its mouth on this issue. I guess I thought that if a person ran on the issue of closing the gap, they would actually spend time working on that issue once elected … silly me!

  3. Anonymous

    These results underscore the fact that while some improvements have been made, we’ve still got a long ways to go to close the achievement gap in Davis. Interestingly, the much-ballyhooed Achievement Gap Task Force has seen numerous resignations, including its chair, in the last few weeks. It seems that many members are citing the poor support from the District and the fact that the Board is speaking out of both sides of its mouth on this issue. I guess I thought that if a person ran on the issue of closing the gap, they would actually spend time working on that issue once elected … silly me!

  4. Anonymous

    These results underscore the fact that while some improvements have been made, we’ve still got a long ways to go to close the achievement gap in Davis. Interestingly, the much-ballyhooed Achievement Gap Task Force has seen numerous resignations, including its chair, in the last few weeks. It seems that many members are citing the poor support from the District and the fact that the Board is speaking out of both sides of its mouth on this issue. I guess I thought that if a person ran on the issue of closing the gap, they would actually spend time working on that issue once elected … silly me!

  5. Anonymous

    The district administration puts on a great show of rhetoric for supporting minorities. Spent lots of money for programs to promote “understanding.” Bottom line after all is said and done, Davis High STILL has no African American teachers and students STILL feel like they are disciplined much more harshly than whites. The Best Use of Schools Task force had no minorities on it and the school board member who campaigned on fair treatment for “all” voted to close down a school that excels in teaching English learners and integrating them with their other students in spite of data that showed the Task Force’s analysis to be faulty. There is definitely a perception gap as well as an achievement gap in this town.

  6. Anonymous

    The district administration puts on a great show of rhetoric for supporting minorities. Spent lots of money for programs to promote “understanding.” Bottom line after all is said and done, Davis High STILL has no African American teachers and students STILL feel like they are disciplined much more harshly than whites. The Best Use of Schools Task force had no minorities on it and the school board member who campaigned on fair treatment for “all” voted to close down a school that excels in teaching English learners and integrating them with their other students in spite of data that showed the Task Force’s analysis to be faulty. There is definitely a perception gap as well as an achievement gap in this town.

  7. Anonymous

    The district administration puts on a great show of rhetoric for supporting minorities. Spent lots of money for programs to promote “understanding.” Bottom line after all is said and done, Davis High STILL has no African American teachers and students STILL feel like they are disciplined much more harshly than whites. The Best Use of Schools Task force had no minorities on it and the school board member who campaigned on fair treatment for “all” voted to close down a school that excels in teaching English learners and integrating them with their other students in spite of data that showed the Task Force’s analysis to be faulty. There is definitely a perception gap as well as an achievement gap in this town.

  8. Anonymous

    The district administration puts on a great show of rhetoric for supporting minorities. Spent lots of money for programs to promote “understanding.” Bottom line after all is said and done, Davis High STILL has no African American teachers and students STILL feel like they are disciplined much more harshly than whites. The Best Use of Schools Task force had no minorities on it and the school board member who campaigned on fair treatment for “all” voted to close down a school that excels in teaching English learners and integrating them with their other students in spite of data that showed the Task Force’s analysis to be faulty. There is definitely a perception gap as well as an achievement gap in this town.

  9. Rich Rifkin

    The so-called achievement gap is mostly a synonym for a cultural gap. Some sub-cultures in America stress education and book-learning; others do not. Because of that, closing this gap is very difficult, if not impossible.

    Of course, cultures do change over time. What needs to be changed within the U.S., as much as possible, are the sub-cultures that don’t fully value classroom education. They need to raise their expectations of themselves and of their schools.

    In a larger sense, the broader American culture (compared with many other countries) lacks an emphasis on scholarship. Were it not for brilliant foreigners who populate our best colleges, grad schools and academic faculties, the deficits of the American culture with regard to education would be more apparent.

    Our standards for ourselves and our pedagogy are pathetically low. Students who cannot compose a decent essay, following the rules of English grammar, are not only graduating from high schools, they are graduating from colleges.

    I am endlessly shocked at how poorly “educated” Americans write. Even worse are our expectations for mathematics.

    As long as some cultures within the U.S. do not have high expectations for their kids, there will be an achievement gap. And as long as America as a whole has low standards for educational achievement, we will trail the world.

  10. Rich Rifkin

    The so-called achievement gap is mostly a synonym for a cultural gap. Some sub-cultures in America stress education and book-learning; others do not. Because of that, closing this gap is very difficult, if not impossible.

    Of course, cultures do change over time. What needs to be changed within the U.S., as much as possible, are the sub-cultures that don’t fully value classroom education. They need to raise their expectations of themselves and of their schools.

    In a larger sense, the broader American culture (compared with many other countries) lacks an emphasis on scholarship. Were it not for brilliant foreigners who populate our best colleges, grad schools and academic faculties, the deficits of the American culture with regard to education would be more apparent.

    Our standards for ourselves and our pedagogy are pathetically low. Students who cannot compose a decent essay, following the rules of English grammar, are not only graduating from high schools, they are graduating from colleges.

    I am endlessly shocked at how poorly “educated” Americans write. Even worse are our expectations for mathematics.

    As long as some cultures within the U.S. do not have high expectations for their kids, there will be an achievement gap. And as long as America as a whole has low standards for educational achievement, we will trail the world.

  11. Rich Rifkin

    The so-called achievement gap is mostly a synonym for a cultural gap. Some sub-cultures in America stress education and book-learning; others do not. Because of that, closing this gap is very difficult, if not impossible.

    Of course, cultures do change over time. What needs to be changed within the U.S., as much as possible, are the sub-cultures that don’t fully value classroom education. They need to raise their expectations of themselves and of their schools.

    In a larger sense, the broader American culture (compared with many other countries) lacks an emphasis on scholarship. Were it not for brilliant foreigners who populate our best colleges, grad schools and academic faculties, the deficits of the American culture with regard to education would be more apparent.

    Our standards for ourselves and our pedagogy are pathetically low. Students who cannot compose a decent essay, following the rules of English grammar, are not only graduating from high schools, they are graduating from colleges.

    I am endlessly shocked at how poorly “educated” Americans write. Even worse are our expectations for mathematics.

    As long as some cultures within the U.S. do not have high expectations for their kids, there will be an achievement gap. And as long as America as a whole has low standards for educational achievement, we will trail the world.

  12. Rich Rifkin

    The so-called achievement gap is mostly a synonym for a cultural gap. Some sub-cultures in America stress education and book-learning; others do not. Because of that, closing this gap is very difficult, if not impossible.

    Of course, cultures do change over time. What needs to be changed within the U.S., as much as possible, are the sub-cultures that don’t fully value classroom education. They need to raise their expectations of themselves and of their schools.

    In a larger sense, the broader American culture (compared with many other countries) lacks an emphasis on scholarship. Were it not for brilliant foreigners who populate our best colleges, grad schools and academic faculties, the deficits of the American culture with regard to education would be more apparent.

    Our standards for ourselves and our pedagogy are pathetically low. Students who cannot compose a decent essay, following the rules of English grammar, are not only graduating from high schools, they are graduating from colleges.

    I am endlessly shocked at how poorly “educated” Americans write. Even worse are our expectations for mathematics.

    As long as some cultures within the U.S. do not have high expectations for their kids, there will be an achievement gap. And as long as America as a whole has low standards for educational achievement, we will trail the world.

  13. Anonymous

    Given how the public (most of whom did not attend the meetings) is really trashing the Best Use of Schools Task Force, accusing them of being out to get Valley Oak from the beginning, wanting to close VO because they are racist, cooking the data, etc, it is a good thing the Achievement Gap committee has already been formed. Given the current attitudes and treatment by the public, who would want to be on the Achievement Gap Task Force? If members have resigned, it really should not be a surprise.

    Similarly, Baki has complained about/used as a scare tactic, the creation of a 7/11 committee for surplus school property. He is approaching is like some secret plan to sell off Valley Oak. That is nonsense. Did you follow the Grande debacle with the previous school board at all? The complicated “trade” for a minimal amount of money and undetermined land not even owned by the developer was all designed to circumvent state law related to surplus school property (like having to appoint a citizens committee to determine if it is surplus, having to let the city and county have the chance to buy some of the property at less than market value, etc).

    That the district is suddenly forming the 7/11 committee is a good thing. It means that the interim superintendent must be concerned about the district actually following state laws. Formation of this committee is unlikely to have anything to do with VO and everything to do with selling Grande and Wildhorse properties, and probably eventually also want to do about the dilapidated Susan B. Anthony building (have you been in there in rainy weather and seen the tarps they have to put over computers and desks because of leeks?).

  14. Anonymous

    Given how the public (most of whom did not attend the meetings) is really trashing the Best Use of Schools Task Force, accusing them of being out to get Valley Oak from the beginning, wanting to close VO because they are racist, cooking the data, etc, it is a good thing the Achievement Gap committee has already been formed. Given the current attitudes and treatment by the public, who would want to be on the Achievement Gap Task Force? If members have resigned, it really should not be a surprise.

    Similarly, Baki has complained about/used as a scare tactic, the creation of a 7/11 committee for surplus school property. He is approaching is like some secret plan to sell off Valley Oak. That is nonsense. Did you follow the Grande debacle with the previous school board at all? The complicated “trade” for a minimal amount of money and undetermined land not even owned by the developer was all designed to circumvent state law related to surplus school property (like having to appoint a citizens committee to determine if it is surplus, having to let the city and county have the chance to buy some of the property at less than market value, etc).

    That the district is suddenly forming the 7/11 committee is a good thing. It means that the interim superintendent must be concerned about the district actually following state laws. Formation of this committee is unlikely to have anything to do with VO and everything to do with selling Grande and Wildhorse properties, and probably eventually also want to do about the dilapidated Susan B. Anthony building (have you been in there in rainy weather and seen the tarps they have to put over computers and desks because of leeks?).

  15. Anonymous

    Given how the public (most of whom did not attend the meetings) is really trashing the Best Use of Schools Task Force, accusing them of being out to get Valley Oak from the beginning, wanting to close VO because they are racist, cooking the data, etc, it is a good thing the Achievement Gap committee has already been formed. Given the current attitudes and treatment by the public, who would want to be on the Achievement Gap Task Force? If members have resigned, it really should not be a surprise.

    Similarly, Baki has complained about/used as a scare tactic, the creation of a 7/11 committee for surplus school property. He is approaching is like some secret plan to sell off Valley Oak. That is nonsense. Did you follow the Grande debacle with the previous school board at all? The complicated “trade” for a minimal amount of money and undetermined land not even owned by the developer was all designed to circumvent state law related to surplus school property (like having to appoint a citizens committee to determine if it is surplus, having to let the city and county have the chance to buy some of the property at less than market value, etc).

    That the district is suddenly forming the 7/11 committee is a good thing. It means that the interim superintendent must be concerned about the district actually following state laws. Formation of this committee is unlikely to have anything to do with VO and everything to do with selling Grande and Wildhorse properties, and probably eventually also want to do about the dilapidated Susan B. Anthony building (have you been in there in rainy weather and seen the tarps they have to put over computers and desks because of leeks?).

  16. Anonymous

    Given how the public (most of whom did not attend the meetings) is really trashing the Best Use of Schools Task Force, accusing them of being out to get Valley Oak from the beginning, wanting to close VO because they are racist, cooking the data, etc, it is a good thing the Achievement Gap committee has already been formed. Given the current attitudes and treatment by the public, who would want to be on the Achievement Gap Task Force? If members have resigned, it really should not be a surprise.

    Similarly, Baki has complained about/used as a scare tactic, the creation of a 7/11 committee for surplus school property. He is approaching is like some secret plan to sell off Valley Oak. That is nonsense. Did you follow the Grande debacle with the previous school board at all? The complicated “trade” for a minimal amount of money and undetermined land not even owned by the developer was all designed to circumvent state law related to surplus school property (like having to appoint a citizens committee to determine if it is surplus, having to let the city and county have the chance to buy some of the property at less than market value, etc).

    That the district is suddenly forming the 7/11 committee is a good thing. It means that the interim superintendent must be concerned about the district actually following state laws. Formation of this committee is unlikely to have anything to do with VO and everything to do with selling Grande and Wildhorse properties, and probably eventually also want to do about the dilapidated Susan B. Anthony building (have you been in there in rainy weather and seen the tarps they have to put over computers and desks because of leeks?).

  17. Vincente

    “wanting to close VO because they are racist, cooking the data”

    I certainly would not accuse them of being racist. That doesn’t mean there is not a legitimate racial component here. And it also doesn’t mean that race is not an underlying factor in the decision.

    Did they cook the data?

    I would use the term confirmatory bias rather than cooking the data. They found what they set out to find.

  18. Vincente

    “wanting to close VO because they are racist, cooking the data”

    I certainly would not accuse them of being racist. That doesn’t mean there is not a legitimate racial component here. And it also doesn’t mean that race is not an underlying factor in the decision.

    Did they cook the data?

    I would use the term confirmatory bias rather than cooking the data. They found what they set out to find.

  19. Vincente

    “wanting to close VO because they are racist, cooking the data”

    I certainly would not accuse them of being racist. That doesn’t mean there is not a legitimate racial component here. And it also doesn’t mean that race is not an underlying factor in the decision.

    Did they cook the data?

    I would use the term confirmatory bias rather than cooking the data. They found what they set out to find.

  20. Vincente

    “wanting to close VO because they are racist, cooking the data”

    I certainly would not accuse them of being racist. That doesn’t mean there is not a legitimate racial component here. And it also doesn’t mean that race is not an underlying factor in the decision.

    Did they cook the data?

    I would use the term confirmatory bias rather than cooking the data. They found what they set out to find.

  21. natalie

    As I read it, Baki is concerned with the 7/11 committee looking at the reuse of VO when the fate of VO is still up in the air. It just looks bad going into polling and possibly a parcel tax campaign, if the district is acting as though the school is already closed.

  22. natalie

    As I read it, Baki is concerned with the 7/11 committee looking at the reuse of VO when the fate of VO is still up in the air. It just looks bad going into polling and possibly a parcel tax campaign, if the district is acting as though the school is already closed.

  23. natalie

    As I read it, Baki is concerned with the 7/11 committee looking at the reuse of VO when the fate of VO is still up in the air. It just looks bad going into polling and possibly a parcel tax campaign, if the district is acting as though the school is already closed.

  24. natalie

    As I read it, Baki is concerned with the 7/11 committee looking at the reuse of VO when the fate of VO is still up in the air. It just looks bad going into polling and possibly a parcel tax campaign, if the district is acting as though the school is already closed.

  25. Anonymous

    They found what they set out to find.

    The contracted demographer geographically coded every student in the district by address. Regardless of what they “set out to find,” there were only 220 neighborhood kids in the Valley Oak area who attend the school, less than any other school. I don’t see how those data are biased or cooked; it’s simply a fact.

  26. Anonymous

    They found what they set out to find.

    The contracted demographer geographically coded every student in the district by address. Regardless of what they “set out to find,” there were only 220 neighborhood kids in the Valley Oak area who attend the school, less than any other school. I don’t see how those data are biased or cooked; it’s simply a fact.

  27. Anonymous

    They found what they set out to find.

    The contracted demographer geographically coded every student in the district by address. Regardless of what they “set out to find,” there were only 220 neighborhood kids in the Valley Oak area who attend the school, less than any other school. I don’t see how those data are biased or cooked; it’s simply a fact.

  28. Anonymous

    They found what they set out to find.

    The contracted demographer geographically coded every student in the district by address. Regardless of what they “set out to find,” there were only 220 neighborhood kids in the Valley Oak area who attend the school, less than any other school. I don’t see how those data are biased or cooked; it’s simply a fact.

  29. Vincente

    Two points in response to that, first of all the data analysis for projections was closer to the issue at point.

    Second, those data findings sited by another anonymous above are just a number, they are not necessarily attached to any kind of irrefutable conclusion that a school must close and it must be a specific one.

  30. Vincente

    Two points in response to that, first of all the data analysis for projections was closer to the issue at point.

    Second, those data findings sited by another anonymous above are just a number, they are not necessarily attached to any kind of irrefutable conclusion that a school must close and it must be a specific one.

  31. Vincente

    Two points in response to that, first of all the data analysis for projections was closer to the issue at point.

    Second, those data findings sited by another anonymous above are just a number, they are not necessarily attached to any kind of irrefutable conclusion that a school must close and it must be a specific one.

  32. Vincente

    Two points in response to that, first of all the data analysis for projections was closer to the issue at point.

    Second, those data findings sited by another anonymous above are just a number, they are not necessarily attached to any kind of irrefutable conclusion that a school must close and it must be a specific one.

  33. Anonymous

    The gap is perplexing. But, as a positive note,each of the minority groups scores higher than many schools in neighboring districts. Since these scores are the average scores, it would be interesting to narrow down how many students are actually scoring above and below 800 in each of the ethnic groups. As anyone who has studied statistics knows, one piece of information is just a start.

  34. Anonymous

    The gap is perplexing. But, as a positive note,each of the minority groups scores higher than many schools in neighboring districts. Since these scores are the average scores, it would be interesting to narrow down how many students are actually scoring above and below 800 in each of the ethnic groups. As anyone who has studied statistics knows, one piece of information is just a start.

  35. Anonymous

    The gap is perplexing. But, as a positive note,each of the minority groups scores higher than many schools in neighboring districts. Since these scores are the average scores, it would be interesting to narrow down how many students are actually scoring above and below 800 in each of the ethnic groups. As anyone who has studied statistics knows, one piece of information is just a start.

  36. Anonymous

    The gap is perplexing. But, as a positive note,each of the minority groups scores higher than many schools in neighboring districts. Since these scores are the average scores, it would be interesting to narrow down how many students are actually scoring above and below 800 in each of the ethnic groups. As anyone who has studied statistics knows, one piece of information is just a start.

  37. Rich Rifkin

    “But, as a positive note, each of the minority groups scores higher than many schools in neighboring districts.”

    I would bet that in every demographic sub-group, the parents in Davis have more education than the parents in all of the neighboring districts.

    It is incorrect to say that the level of education of the parents directly determines the educational achievement of their children. However, parental education is a reasonably good proxy in most cases for a family’s educational culture (ceteris paribus). Thus, because so many Davis parents are college graduates — 82% compared with 25% in Woodland — a higher percentage of Davis students from all ethnic groups are growing up in an educated household.

    What I find fascinating is the extraordinarily high educational achievement of some immigrant groups, where the parents have no formal education at all. It is not uncommon, for example, to meet a Vietnamese-American doctor whose parents were peasants in Vietnam. Similar accounts are found among Jamaicans and other Anglo-Caribbean blacks. However, in other subcultures, such as with the Mien or Hmong or Dominicans, those stories of educational achievement are far rarer.

  38. Rich Rifkin

    “But, as a positive note, each of the minority groups scores higher than many schools in neighboring districts.”

    I would bet that in every demographic sub-group, the parents in Davis have more education than the parents in all of the neighboring districts.

    It is incorrect to say that the level of education of the parents directly determines the educational achievement of their children. However, parental education is a reasonably good proxy in most cases for a family’s educational culture (ceteris paribus). Thus, because so many Davis parents are college graduates — 82% compared with 25% in Woodland — a higher percentage of Davis students from all ethnic groups are growing up in an educated household.

    What I find fascinating is the extraordinarily high educational achievement of some immigrant groups, where the parents have no formal education at all. It is not uncommon, for example, to meet a Vietnamese-American doctor whose parents were peasants in Vietnam. Similar accounts are found among Jamaicans and other Anglo-Caribbean blacks. However, in other subcultures, such as with the Mien or Hmong or Dominicans, those stories of educational achievement are far rarer.

  39. Rich Rifkin

    “But, as a positive note, each of the minority groups scores higher than many schools in neighboring districts.”

    I would bet that in every demographic sub-group, the parents in Davis have more education than the parents in all of the neighboring districts.

    It is incorrect to say that the level of education of the parents directly determines the educational achievement of their children. However, parental education is a reasonably good proxy in most cases for a family’s educational culture (ceteris paribus). Thus, because so many Davis parents are college graduates — 82% compared with 25% in Woodland — a higher percentage of Davis students from all ethnic groups are growing up in an educated household.

    What I find fascinating is the extraordinarily high educational achievement of some immigrant groups, where the parents have no formal education at all. It is not uncommon, for example, to meet a Vietnamese-American doctor whose parents were peasants in Vietnam. Similar accounts are found among Jamaicans and other Anglo-Caribbean blacks. However, in other subcultures, such as with the Mien or Hmong or Dominicans, those stories of educational achievement are far rarer.

  40. Rich Rifkin

    “But, as a positive note, each of the minority groups scores higher than many schools in neighboring districts.”

    I would bet that in every demographic sub-group, the parents in Davis have more education than the parents in all of the neighboring districts.

    It is incorrect to say that the level of education of the parents directly determines the educational achievement of their children. However, parental education is a reasonably good proxy in most cases for a family’s educational culture (ceteris paribus). Thus, because so many Davis parents are college graduates — 82% compared with 25% in Woodland — a higher percentage of Davis students from all ethnic groups are growing up in an educated household.

    What I find fascinating is the extraordinarily high educational achievement of some immigrant groups, where the parents have no formal education at all. It is not uncommon, for example, to meet a Vietnamese-American doctor whose parents were peasants in Vietnam. Similar accounts are found among Jamaicans and other Anglo-Caribbean blacks. However, in other subcultures, such as with the Mien or Hmong or Dominicans, those stories of educational achievement are far rarer.

  41. Bill Storm

    If you take a look at the district STAR data here: Surviving White Privilege: a school on the horns of a dilemma you may see a hint at why the district persists in this divide. It’s in the numbers. The closure of the only district elementary school that bucks stagnant numbers, Valley Oak, is high on this Board to-do list. To make a difference in the achievement gap, a school district has to care over the long haul about all of its students, not just those of the best-connected homeowners.

  42. Bill Storm

    If you take a look at the district STAR data here: Surviving White Privilege: a school on the horns of a dilemma you may see a hint at why the district persists in this divide. It’s in the numbers. The closure of the only district elementary school that bucks stagnant numbers, Valley Oak, is high on this Board to-do list. To make a difference in the achievement gap, a school district has to care over the long haul about all of its students, not just those of the best-connected homeowners.

  43. Bill Storm

    If you take a look at the district STAR data here: Surviving White Privilege: a school on the horns of a dilemma you may see a hint at why the district persists in this divide. It’s in the numbers. The closure of the only district elementary school that bucks stagnant numbers, Valley Oak, is high on this Board to-do list. To make a difference in the achievement gap, a school district has to care over the long haul about all of its students, not just those of the best-connected homeowners.

  44. Bill Storm

    If you take a look at the district STAR data here: Surviving White Privilege: a school on the horns of a dilemma you may see a hint at why the district persists in this divide. It’s in the numbers. The closure of the only district elementary school that bucks stagnant numbers, Valley Oak, is high on this Board to-do list. To make a difference in the achievement gap, a school district has to care over the long haul about all of its students, not just those of the best-connected homeowners.

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