Community Members Propose Minority-Run Credit Union

Sac-Credit-UnionBy Jerika. L.H.

For the past two years, community members have been toiling away towards a goal they hope will enrich underserved populations- a minority owned Credit Union. This active group of businesses owners, community leaders, and involved citizens had initially pitched the idea for the Community Federal Credit Union at the African American Leadership Conference, which is put on by the California Black Chamber of Commerce Foundation. Their tireless efforts have made the dream of a local community credit union become a real possibility, as they have just finished the initial phase of the application process. A community based financial institution could be right around the corner for Sacramento locals.

As it currently stands, 1 in 13 households rely on expensive check cashing facilities as their primary means of banking. 21 million Americans are classified as “underbanked,” meaning they use alternative financial services in combination with traditional banking services.  Statistically, those living below the poverty level are the most likely to use a check cashing place and be without a bank account. According to Strike Debt, “The unbanked includes the working poor, the unemployed, the homeless, the undocumented, those who do not speak English fluently, those who are or have been incarcerated, those with mental or physical health issues, and older people. Demographically speaking, the unbanked population is very broad and very diverse, but it is disproportionately comprised of low-income households (71% of unbanked households earn below $30,000 a year), households of color, and immigrant households.”

The proposed credit union will be headquartered in Oak Park, a neighborhood demarcated by particularly high rates of poverty, and seeks to ease the financial burden of local community members as well as strengthen the community through education and mutual aid. This planned family-friendly credit union would extend a range of services to members through locally based efforts, thus fostering a stronger relationship between neighbors and families. Steering committee member Dusharme Thomas notes, “We are really looking forward to the opportunity to present a resource to people- not just in helping people with banking but by connecting with them. Locals will be able to speak face to face with people who care about their needs and the needs of their community. We hope to help members grow their potential, as well as protect their assets. It will really beneficial for everyone.” Thus far, the group’s efforts have been met with overwhelming encouragement and public approval.

Yet, in order to make the credit union a possibility, organizers are enlisting the help of the community.  As they move on to the next stage of their National Credit Union Administration application, they must demonstrate that there is sufficient resident backing to support the credit union’s development. This means compiling a survey of 600 potential users, or those who may be interested in utilizing the services of the credit union, to showcase public interest in the project. This will not only provide information on what the community wants from their proposed financial provider, but will help the steering committee show the NCUA that the Community Federal Credit Union is something Sacramento both wants and needs. The quick survey is confidential, takes only a few minutes to complete, and will bring the steering committee one step closer in making their goal a reality. To help support the local minority-owned Community Federal Credit Union in their efforts to extend financial services to underserved populations in Sacramento, please follow the survey link below. http://www.surveymonkey.com/r/ProposedCCCFCU

For more information, visit  https://www.facebook.com/ProposedCUSacramento/

About The Author

Disclaimer: the views expressed by guest writers are strictly those of the author and may not reflect the views of the Vanguard, its editor, or its editorial board.

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61 Comments

  1. hpierce

    Ok… potentially interesting for Sacramento…

    In Yolo County, we have Yolo Federal Credit Union, Travis Credit Union, USE, Golden 1 (that I know of)  – all have branches in Davis.  Haven’t worked with a bank for ~30 years.   I am, in effect, a voting stockholder in my financial institution.  And have been damn well served.

    For Davis, and Yolo County, I believe we already have good resources to meet most, if not all the goals espoused.

    “minority-run” is an interesting term… in CA, at least, it won’t be that long before there are no “majorities”, if the projections are to be believed… and “minority” on what basis? Race? Religion (a ‘sharia-based CU would be an interesting addition)? Sexual orientation?

  2. wdf1

    I have misgivings about this.  The understanding is that several minority races are disproportionately lower SES.  But might there be lower SES whites who could also benefit from this?  The target population for this service is not determined by racial identity, but by low SES.  To identify a credit union as “minority owned” suggests that whites (across the board) would be excluded from being shareholders (owners).

  3. The Pugilist

    Wdf- as I read this, they are talking about the “unbanked”, People making less than $30,000, and also targeting certain neighborhoods. It is not clear to me that the clientiele it would serve would be racial. In Fact my guess is that wouldn’t be illegal anyway.

    1. The Pugilist

      “The unbanked includes the working poor, the unemployed, the homeless, the undocumented, those who do not speak English fluently, those who are or have been incarcerated, those with mental or physical health issues, and older people. Demographically speaking, the unbanked population is very broad and very diverse, but it is disproportionately comprised of low-income households (71% of unbanked households earn below $30,000 a year), households of color, and immigrant households.”

      That certainly suggests a diverse population but not exclusively racial minorities.

  4. South of Davis

    Jerika wrote:

    > 1 in 13 households rely on expensive check cashing facilities

    It looks like around 1 in 15 households in California are undocumented immigrants.  While it is possible to get a bank account when you are in the country illegally (and don’t have a SS#) few want to risk giving so much information to the government and/or a bank.

    > those living below the poverty level are the most likely to use

    > a check cashing place and be without a bank account.

    The reason that most legal residents use check cashing places is because they were not told about the importance of not bouncing checks and they are on the “ChexSystems” blacklist.  Almost all banks “and” Credit Unions use ChexSystems and if you are on the blacklist you can’t open an account.  I work with a lot of lower income people and it pains me that many are so bad with money that they don’t even know that they can go to MY bank and cash a check I give them for FREE.  I know that some schools have “life skills” classes but it is sad that we don’t give most High School kids even basic information about how the banking system works (and what they need to do to stay out of the check cashing center hell)…

    1. Topcat

      I know that some schools have “life skills” classes but it is sad that we don’t give most High School kids even basic information about how the banking system works (and what they need to do to stay out of the check cashing center hell)…

      Yes, the lack of personal finance education in our schools leaves a lot of people at a big disadvantage. I am constantly amazed at the poor understanding that so many people have regarding personal finance.

      1. Frankly

        Not much of anything about being financially self-sufficient; but by the time they graduate they sure know a lot about multi-culturalism and diversity and the history of oppression of all disadvantaged victim groups.

      2. sisterhood

        I served Californians who were at or below 130% of the state’s poverty level for a number of years. I’m slightly offended at the idea of a minority owned c.u.

        Agree that high schools need to teach basic finances, including how to complete a simple short form tax return.

        But poverty in CA will continue as long as there are religious institutions like Roman Catholicism that teach women family planning is sinful.

        IMHO, family planning and, more importantly, assertiveness training, must be taught in junior high and high school. Otherwise, all the financial help in the world will not keep women with too many children out of poverty. I was raised Catholic and I apologize to anyone whom I may have just offended.

        1. TrueBlueDevil

          Your prejudices and politics about poverty are showing.

          1. The number 1 group in poverty are single mother headed households. Out of wedlock births; not PC, but reality. This includes the men that imp regnant them, and then shirk their responsibilities.

          2. Murphy Brown / Leftie politics sold a bill of goods to impetuous young people, but it was a dangerous myth. For every Murphy Brown, there are dozens of women who struggle with finances, housing, child care, etc. Heck, most married couples struggle! Removing the social taboos came at a huge cost.

          3. Liberally run school systems quit teaching shop / trades, we refuse to close the order, and the EPA and government bureaucracy strangle many businesses, a trifecta of massive proportions.

          Given our liberal political leadership and open border, I see high levels of poverty continuing and expanding. The new $15 an hour minimum wage will only make things even worse.

          As far as a minority owned credit union, go for it. Dr. Tony brown suggested this years ago. Will they do it with their own money, or will we taxpayers pay for this?

        2. wdf1

          TBD:  3. Liberally run school systems quit teaching shop / trades, 

          Citation?

          I find your reflexive “blame it on the liberals” prejudice interesting.

          On the other hand,

          Time, 8 May 2015: Why Schools Need to Bring Back Shop Class

          The Education Committee of the U.S. Senate is currently considering the re-authorization of No Child Left Behind. Much of the original rhetoric in NCLB was about improving job readiness and employability. In a tragic irony, the focus of the last ten years has not been on improving vocational programs at all but on testing narrow academic standards. Overall, the impact on students, schools and employability has been baleful. This is the time to change.

          etc.

           

        3. South of Davis

          wdf1:

          > I find your reflexive “blame it on the liberals”

          > prejudice interesting.

          Do you have evidence that “conservatives” are really the ones behind the closing of the wood shop, auto shop and home economics classes at so many California public High Schools?

          1. Don Shor

            > I find your reflexive “blame it on the liberals”

            > prejudice interesting.

            Do you have evidence that “conservatives” are really the ones

            First of all, wdf1 didn’t assert that. Second, are those really the only two choices?

        4. wdf1

          SoD:  Do you have evidence that “conservatives” are really the ones behind the closing of the wood shop, auto shop and home economics classes at so many California public High Schools?

          No.  I don’t see this issue as due to a liberal or conservative agenda.

          No Child Left Behind placed a high premium on reaching certain standards in English and math to determine whether quality teaching was happening or not.  Wood shop and trade education were not a part of that metric, so they were deemed expendable.  NCLB passed with bipartisan support in 2001.

          My citation presented a narrative for what happened to those programs that was different from “those nasty liberals did it.”

        5. Topcat

          Agree that high schools need to teach basic finances, including how to complete a simple short form tax return.

          Yes, It would go a long way towards helping economically disadvantaged people if they had a good grasp of personal finance and good decision making.

        6. wdf1

          Topcat:  Yes, It would go a long way towards helping economically disadvantaged people if they had a good grasp of personal finance and good decision making.

          I think some of the issues of banking for lower income individuals relate to the ability to keep a minimum balance in their account so as to avoid minimum balance fees.  The more money one makes, the better one is able to negotiate and obtain lower interest rates on credit cards and loans.  Poor financial position isn’t necessarily only about be un(der)-educated on the issue.

      1. The Pugilist

        I suspect it’s a misappropriation of this from PPIC: “California is home to more than two million undocumented immigrants.   Undocumented (also known as illegal or unauthorized) immigrants are not directly counted in any representative national or state surveys. But the best estimates suggest that in 2013 California was home to about 2.67 million undocumented immigrants.”  Based on that you could argue that 1 in 15 residents are undocumented, but households are a bit different.

      2. South of Davis

        > What is the source for that figure?

        I looked at a bunch of estimates of the population and number undocumented immigrants and wrote that it is “around” (not “exactly” 1 in 15.

        No one knows the “exact” population of California, the “exact” number of households or the the “exact” number of undocumented immigrants (or if a “household” in East Sac with an undocumented nanny from Guatemala as an “undocumented household” or “documented household”).

        As someone who talks to the “undocumented” residents of the state often I can tell you that VERY few have bank (or credit union) accounts.  My point was that the main reason we have so many “unbanked” people in the state is that people who are “undocumented” don’t want to give information to a bank or credit union (not because there are not enough minorities at the current banks and credit unions)…

        1. Don Shor

          I’ve had a fair number of employees over the years who didn’t have checking accounts. They were all “documented” Americans. It’s more of a low-income issue than an immigration issue, IMO.

  5. Frankly

    This is stupid.  The narrative here is that minorities are underserved in access to credit because there are not enough minorities that own businesses that lend.

    Minorities are underserved in access to credit… even though there are THOUSANDS of government programs with public policy goals to increase minority access to credit.

    Credit standards are credit standards.   They are not discriminatory.  Bankers make a commission on the loans they bring in.  Lending business makes money servicing loans, or earn a premium for selling loans in the secondary market to investors… the higher the quality of the credit, the higher the premium.   But no loan means no commissions, no loan servicing revenue and no premium.   There is plenty of incentive for banks to lend to minorities that are a good credit risk.

    And keep in mind that more and more loan approvals are done by software.  the data go in and the software comes back with a score that is the basis for credit approval.  Yes there are subjective criteria, but they are de minimis and race-blind.

    The problem is that minorities are over-represented in things that increase their calculated credit risk.  Fix those things to increase the access to credit.

    1. hpierce

      Your comment is also ‘stupid’…

       not enough minorities that own businesses that lend.

      Any minority individual who participates in a credit union has an ‘ownership’ interest in it… unlike the work you do.  Credit unions are not inherently a “business”, as there is no profit motive.

      Credit standards are credit standards.

      That is a true statement, but credit unions have shown, within the limits that the private banks have forced the Feds to regulate CU’s, that they are capable of flexibility.

      Bankers make a commission on the loans they bring in.  Lending business makes money servicing loans, or earn a premium for selling loans in the secondary market to investors… the higher the quality of the credit, the higher the premium.   But no loan means no commissions, no loan servicing revenue and no premium.

      My understanding is that the loan folk @ CU’s earn no commissions, the net income is distributed to the CU members. That’s why I belong to a CU.

       

        1. Frankly

          One bit of info related to this.  Thanks to a certain political orientation and their Party strategy, banking has been demonized to the point that there is a talent shortage due to the kids going for a useless “save the world” or a currently lucrative but unsustainable “government job” degree and career path.

          And so even if a Credit Union did not want to pay commissions, they would not generally be able to attract talent that would feed them loan volume unless they provide equitable compensation.  And trust me, there is no CU that is not focused on generating loan volume.  Because loan volume is how they generate revenue to keep the lights on and reduce their cost of funds that allow them to give their members low rates.

      1. hpierce

        Wow… the point I thought I was making is that minorities don’t need their own coop of any type (at least in Yolo County)… you must be a Trumpette to make that comment… now, you just need to call me a “liar”.

        1. Frankly

          Sorry… I was not meaning to direct this at you.  I was in fact attempting to reinforce the point you had made.  I was agreeing with you.   But I see how that would be hard to tell given that I responded directly to your post and did not include that I agreed.

          “you” in this case was supposed to be directed at “all”.

  6. MidCentury

    ” Thanks to a certain political orientation and their Party strategy, banking has been demonized to the point that there is a talent shortage due to the kids going for a useless “save the world” or a currently lucrative but unsustainable “government job” degree and career path.”

    Thank goodness that kids are going for ‘useless’ jobs instead of manipulating our economy with credit instruments that only serve to enrich the greedy.

    1. Frankly

      Totally disconnected from your own reality me thinks.  Just go visit those countries that do not have a good banking system and tell me how your life would be there.

      Thanks for proving my point though.

  7. Tia Will

    Frankly

    So in consideration of this, think about how you feel about a food coop just for minorities?!”

    But that is not what is being proposed. No where in the article does it state that this new venture would not serve people of the “majority”.

    I would have you consider this. How do you feel about banks that cater to those who are already affluent while not extending the same services to those who have less ?  In effect, how do you feel about a banking system which consistently favors the elite ?

    This article was a real eye opener for me because it brought to my attention a situation that I have not thought about for many years. I bank at a large nationally prominent bank. I chose to manage my money this way because at one point I had a dependent sister in Washington State, a dependent daughter in Berkeley, and more dependents here in Davis. It was much easier to bank in a system that allowed me to make near instantaneous money transfers on line than to participate in a local credit union.

    What I had overlooked until Jerika’s article was how else I benefit from my means of banking. I am able to perform all kinds of transactions with no additional charges from my home by computer, by phone, or if I happen to be downtown, at the ATM. I have access to a banker on the spot if I need to consult.  I am able to do this, in part, because I have the ability to maintain a large enough account that I incur no fees. What I had not realized is just how much ease and convenience this financial privilege affords me. And, I say this with some embarrassment because until I was in my early thirties, I did not have enough money to get these perks and largely lived pay check to pay check.  These are perks of privilege and a knowledge of how to acquire and distribute money, not because I am somehow a better person, or a harder worker than other’s. It is because I have the privilege of affluence.

     

    1. Frankly

      These are perks of privilege and a knowledge.

      You are very close to getting it.  You just need to rewrite your statement to read:

      “These are perks of privilege resulting from knowledge.” 

      You do not need to be rich to have a bank eager to extend credit.  My son is in the military service.  He makes less than California’s minimu wage.  He has a car loan and a credit card.  He pays attention to his credit score because he has learned that a higher score means a lower rate offered for the next loan.

      You, and many others owning similar worldviews, are terrible at solving big social problems because you are all much too symptom focused.  I think maybe because it is more likely that your heart rules you head.  Poor peoples’ limited access to credit is a symptom of low financial proficiency.  If you want to increase their access to credit, then increase their financial proficiency.  In fact, increasing a person’s financial proficiency is probably a good solution for much of what makes them poor to begin with.

      1. The Pugilist

        ” Poor peoples’ limited access to credit is a symptom of low financial proficiency.”

        That’s perhaps true, but that’s a function of low education and skills as well.  So where is it best to intervene.  You seem to think the best point to intervene is by teaching people better, but that doesn’t really address the here and now.

        1. Frankly

          Here is my thinking on that.

          We cannot truly solve the personal problems that adults have.  We can only offer up some services to keep them barely comfortable unless they have some life ephanies and get some or all of their shit together.  It is beyond the resources that we have to fix what is broken in them.  Think about the number of government employee and private non-profit people that are required to help many of these adults just get to a point of functioning.

          I think we should release all non-violent drug offenders that have not harmed anyone but themself, and invest the savings in treatement and also build a national network of asylums.  And then we should put the mentally ill people in these places and lock them up where they will be best cared for and as safe as possible for the rest of their lives.\

          Then I think we put all our efforts into saving the kids that are 14 and younger, with most of our efforts on the 10 and younger.

          Then in a decade or two you would be mostly out of a job as a liberal social justice crusader and might have to take up golf instead.

      2. hpierce

        Bet your son, frankly, uses a CU, not a bank… a lot of good CU’s were established to serve military folk… Travis CU is one of them… but CU’s find ways to take all comers…

        1. Frankly

          You are mostly correct… his main bank account and CC is with one of the big banks.  But note that the members of the CU he belongs too are as diverse as is the averge soldier and as poor too.

        2. hpierce

          yeah… as to members, and key staff @ YFCU are pretty ‘diverse’…   my main point on this thread…  why is your son even dealing with ‘banks’?  If he never has a balance on his CC, same-same… the rest of your post affirms my point… think “It’s a Wonderful Life”, and the Baileys… town “bank” but actually a “credit union” (as we’d define it today).

      3. Tia Will

        Frankly

        You, and many others owning similar worldviews, are terrible at solving big social problems because you are all much too symptom focused I think maybe because it is more likely that your heart rules you head.”

        I would reframe these assertions. I believe that big social problems are solved when people are willing to acknowledge and address symptoms of dysfunction when they are still small. It is much  easier to deal with a cancer when it is found in its earliest stage rather than awaiting it to metastasize ( the banking problem that brought down the economy) before being willing to admit that there is a problem.

        As for my heart ruling my head, I believe that it is best when the two work together as equal partners. I do not share your abhorrence for any emotion other than anger and feel if more people listened to their hearts a bit more, we would live in a much more civil society.

         Poor peoples’ limited access to credit is a symptom of low financial proficiency.  If you want to increase their access to credit,”

        Agreed. And their limited access to credit is also a symptom of a financial system stacked against them. However, my goal would not be simply to increase their access to credit, it would be to increase their access to wealth with credit being only one aspect of that goal. I would like to see a leveling of the financial “playing field”. Other contributing factors besides access to credit are the fact that the poor do not have access to ” small” ( million dollar) loans from their fathers. They do not have access to the best private schools. They have, as the current UC imbroglio has pointed out, had access to our public universities limited to them by the perceived need for out of state fees and thus preferential treatment for out of state students. Poverty is a multifactorial disease, not simply a lack of financial savvy as your comment implies.

        1. Barack Palin

          The thing about an institution lending money is they want to make sure the person borrowing has the capacity to pay them back.  It has nothing to do with race.

    2. South of Davis

      Tia wrote:

      > I did not have enough money to get these perks

      > and largely lived pay check to pay check.

      Anyone getting a pay check (or paycheck) can get the “perk” of free checking with direct deposit.  I have had my own savings account since the 60’s and my own checking account since the 1970’s  and I have never paid even $1 in bank “fees”.

      In the early 80’s Wells Fargo did not have as many ATMs as BofA (they called them “Versatellers” back then) so I opened a second checking account at BofA to have access to more ATMs (to avoid ATM fees).  In order to keep the account free of all monthly charges I needed just needed to keep a $100 minimum balance (that was $100 for almost 25 years) and only increased in the past 10 years.

      1. hpierce

        Pretty much all CU’s have reciprocal agreements… so if I’m in CO, or MA, I can go to any CU ATM, do what I need to do, and have no fees… been there, done that… waiting for my T-shirt, but might have to pay a fee for that… I always scratch my head when someone says they use a ‘Bank’.

      2. hpierce

        Oh, and that direct deposit thing… my CU actually recognizes the deposit ~ a day earlier than ‘payday’… usually by noon the previous day.  If you get a ‘regular’ (every week, 2 weeks, monthly, sporadic [but from same employer]) paycheck, I question folk’s intelligence  [or paranoia] if they don’t use direct deposit.

  8. sisterhood

    Tia “gets it” just fine. You have a different opinion, nothing more, nothing less.

    “I think maybe because it is more likely that your heart rules you head.”

    I think there is an amazing, exceptionally caring man hidden behind your wall of emotional protection. Open your heart to your head, Frankly! 🙂

    1. Frankly

      No, I like being so uncaring and unsensitive… it saves me money on Kleenex.

      Really though… decisions made from an emotional basis are generally sub-optimized… and prone to causing unintended negative consequences.  There is the “what I want” and “what makes me feel better right now”… and then there is the “what is really needed” and “what makes it right for the long haul”.

      My heart does not do math… my head does.

      1. hpierce

        It is written…

        http://gregferro.com/joke-when-the-body-was-first-made-who-was-the-most-important/

        It is also written…

        “… so that there should be no division in the body, but that its parts should have equal concern for each other… ”

        https://www.google.com/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8#q=disconnect%20between%20head%20and%20heart  (many referents)

        Just a thought…  bifurcation of brain (assume that’s what you mean by “head”) and soul/conscience  (I assume that’s what what you mean by “heart”) does often not end well.  “Integration” of the two are true power, in my opinion.

         

         

         

         

         

        1. Tia Will

          hpierce

           bifurcation of brain (assume that’s what you mean by “head”) and soul/conscience  (I assume that’s what what you mean by “heart”) does often not end well.  “Integration” of the two are true power, in my opinion.”

          I wish that I had read this post before responding to Frankly. You said it much better and more concisely than I did.

           

      2. wdf1

        Frankly:  No, I like being so uncaring and unsensitive… it saves me money on Kleenex.

        But I point out that when you go off generalizing, categorizing, and venting without offering support or evidence for your position, you come off sounding like an angry old white guy.  It’s an emotional presentation of a different sort, and I think you lose credibility for whatever point your trying to make, because it seems like you’re “just being emotional.” No rationality offered.

  9. TrueBlueDevil

    FWIW, one of the Big Whigs for Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac happened to be a minority individual, so that upper echelon isn’t merely inhabited by the Bernie Madoffs of the world.

  10. sisterhood

    “…that upper echelon isn’t merely inhabited by the Bernie Madoffs of the world.”

    Perhaps that’s why I’m slightly offended by the term “minority run”.

    Who would be allowed to sit on the board? If I am 1/12th Lakota, do I qualify? Does a single white mom qualify? Would DNA tests be needed to prove one’s minority status? If a person of color was adopted and raised in an affluent community, would they still qualify as a minority?

    How would credit be extended? An interview process similar to the one on the t.v. show “Sharktank”?

    I see the need for a different kind of banking system, just not sure how this need can be accomplished in a fair, meaningful way.

  11. Justice4All

    As usual, the usual suspects whine about “liberals”, and spew a litany of complaints about topics that are totally irrelevant to the discussion at hand.

    There is a real need for banking reform for the working poor. The CFB was a good step in the right direction, but the fact is that there are so so so many people who work, and are too poor to afford a bank account, so they rely on these vampiric entities known as check cashing banks. The interest on those loans is something like 100% apr, if not more in some cases. Its outrageous. The problem is particularly bad in places like south Sacramento, and some neighborhoods in West Sac. Its just one more reason why its damned expensive to be poor.

    I would certainly support such a Credit Union, although I think it would have trouble being successful here in Davis, given the number of high quality credit unions. With that said, it would work well in places like West Sac and Woodland. Lastly there are other options too. There are bills in Congress that would allow basic banking services like check cashing, money orders etc to be done in post offices across the country, at a minimum of fees to the consumer or taxpayer. That would be a win win win for all involved, but naturally the financial lobby in Washington is holding it up. I wonder why.

    1. Topcat

      …the fact is that there are so so so many people who work, and are too poor to afford a bank account, so they rely on these vampiric entities known as check cashing banks. The interest on those loans is something like 100% apr, if not more in some cases. Its outrageous.

      Yes, lack of knowledge of personal finance is a big problem for many people including the working poor.  I have talked to a number of people who do not realize how they are hurting themselves by relying on high interest loans and credit cards.  Perhaps we, as a society, should put more emphasis on personal finance education to help people avoid getting into financial trouble.

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