Davis Holds Vigil Denouncing Intolerance and Hate

Orlando-Vigil-1by Gloria Partida

I began to write a typical piece about the tragedy in Orlando and the grotesque statements made by the Baptist preacher in Sacramento. Denouncing hate, calling to action a stand against intolerance but I was struck by where DO you start when talking about horror? There is no edge to grab gingerly and cleanly peel away to examine the contents. There is no mound to dig through with shape and mass that can be shoveled into manageable piles. There is only a hideous shapeless presence that slides underfoot and grabs at our ankles with slithery viscous dread. We can discuss the intersections of gun control, mental health, Islamophobia and homophobia; intellectually, politically, spiritually. Still we walk away with mist in our mouths because the fact is we will never eradicate the ism’s of the world. They are virus’ that sense their demise, shift shapes and infect our communities silently and all too often fatally.

In the arena of intolerance, the LGBTQ community has the added challenge of defending its protected group status because many still consider gender/sexual non conformity a choice. So while the world slowly accepts difference in race, religion and culture, all comes to a screeching halt, ironically, at love and in the case of the trans community the basic freedom to be. It’s too much to accept that our universe, as immense as it is, can be non-binary in humanities basic essence. The dogma is deep, immovable and irrational. To believe that queerness will rend the fabric of society irreparable when war, torture, genocide, and child abuse have not. To believe that queerness is so evil that it must be extinguished, or all things are lost, is to believe that is has not existed throughout our history on earth and so is the only reason we exist.

So we trudge the arc of justice forward and steel ourselves against the inevitable obstacles and still sometimes along that journey evil rises so monstrous we must pause jaw agape, hair on end, courage fleeing. Asking how can hate grow so huge and still be contained in a single individual? The truth is it can not. The hate in Orlando was held in all of us and channeled through Omar Mateen. The hate in Orlando was so big it needed an empty space to flow through; someone without compassion, hope, love, understanding. The question we should ask is how do we allow our neighbors, children, coworkers, family to become so disenfranchised that they empty their being of humanity.

It is understandable that mental health is a huge reason for most of the tragic killings in our world and in truth there is not a good answer to this problem. We can, however, prevent the cornerstone of mental delusion from being hate. We can demand that our leaders lead with compassion and understanding. That they demonstrate willingness to solve problems without scapegoating. That they help us rise to our better selves by building safe inclusive spaces with their words and actions. We can seek out places in our communities to mentor youth, volunteer for social justice, or donate to organizations that promote mental health services. We can fill our beings with compassion, hope, love and understanding.

Gloria Partida is co-chair of the Davis Phoenix Coalition

About The Author

Disclaimer: the views expressed by guest writers are strictly those of the author and may not reflect the views of the Vanguard, its editor, or its editorial board.

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75 Comments

        1. Rich RifkinWDE 73

          DLEMON: “He sounds as dangerous to me as the shooter in Orlando. “

          Normally I would dismiss a comment like that. After all, the pastor (presumably) has never shot anyone, while Mr. Mateen has killed 49 and seriously hurt 53 more people.

          Yet I had a conversation with someone who made a pretty convincing case that, with the shooter now dead, we ought to prosecute the inciter of this violence. My friend believes, having heard the extremist talk of the murderer’s Afghani father who has a TV show (he is pro-Taliban and anti-democratic), that the father incited his son with militant Islamism and violently anti-gay feelings*, which exploded in the son because he knew he had gay tendencies.

          So back to the preacher in Sacramento: I don’t think he is yet as evil as Mr. Mateen. However, if someone who heard his screed acted on it by harming one or more gay people, then I can see prosecuting him for inciting violence, much the same way this father likely did by the way he raised his son.

          *My experience is that most men who hate gays are themselves conflicted about their own sexual feelings. The vast majority of straight men, such as myself, don’t hate gays because it’s just someone else’s business and thus why would I care. When I hear preachers — one in Colorado, named Ted Haggard, was exposed a few years back — screaming against the gays, I presume the preacher is himself uncomfortable with his own sexual feelings or perhaps is hiding his own homosexuality.

           

  1. Jerry Waszczuk

    ” The hate in Orlando was held in all of us and channeled through Omar Mateen. The hate in Orlando was so big it needed an empty space to flow through; someone without compassion, hope, love, understanding. The question we should ask is how do we allow our neighbors, children, coworkers, family to become so disenfranchised that they empty their being of humanity.”

    What this person/ author  is trying to say in  the above statement about  this heinous  terrorist  act committed by an sick  maniac who build and accumulated  his hate on the  ill ideology which lead to this mass murder of the innocent people .?

    Is the  author of this article is out of his/her mind blaming everybody for this heinous criminal and terrorist act Frankly I believe that  this article  should no be published on the Vanguard at all for the above reason.

    I think that David or Jerika  could address the committed criminal and terrorist act which took place  in Orlando a lot better than Gloria Partida who ever she is .

    1. Barack Palin

      ” The hate in Orlando was held in all of us and channeled through Omar Mateen.

      Gotta agree with you on that one Jerry.  Omar Marteen had his own hate, whether it was homophobic or radical Islam related or a combination of both, but it’s on him not the rest of us.

      1. hpierce

        Or, as some accounts have it, acting out of self-hate… knew one guy who was gay and Catholic, and verbally ‘acted out’ against gays strongly… he came to know his straight friends liked him anyway (once he stopped his diatribes), and all is well… he has been happy, healthy, and no body count…

        1. Jerry Waszczuk

           

           hpierce 

           I am not sure what you referring   to but your statement remains me story about  Roy Ashburn, who was California State Assemblyman from 1996 to 2002 and California State Senator from 2002 to 2010.

           Ashburn voted against every gay rights measure in the State Senate since taking office all of which subsequently passed.
           On March 3, 2010, Ashburn was arrested on suspicion of drunk driving while operating a State of California owned vehicle. The Senator was pulled over in Sacramento by the California Highway Patrol shortly before 2 a.m after he was leaving a Sacramento gay nightclub, in the Lavender Hill neighborhood, with an unidentified male passenger in a state-owned Chevy Tahoe. Ashburn’s blood alcohol content was measured at 0.14%.

            The arrest “launched nationwide speculation that the veteran lawmaker is gay and therefore a hypocrite for voting against gay-rights bills.”In response to those accusations, during an interview on KERN radio, ASHBURN STATED THAT HE IS GAY AND THAT HE BELIEVES “THAT MY RESPONSIBILITY IS TO MY CONSTITUENTS When asked during the interview whether he personally agreed with votes he made on gay rights issues, Ashburn didn’t answer the question.
          Married , four daughters ( divorced now)

        2. South of Davis

          hpierce wrote:

          > knew one guy who was gay and Catholic, and verbally

          > ‘acted out’ against gays strongly

          The two guys in High School and three guys in College I knew that seemed to have a real problem with gay guys have all come out of the closet…

          Years ago a high percentage of gay Christian kids really believed that they were going to hell (and many entered religious life so no one would notice they were not “married”), today this is rare (outside some super orthodox and LDS groups).

          For some reason a huge number Muslims in America (especially the ones that still do the required daily prayers) really have a hard time with gay people.

      1. Jerry Waszczuk

        The Pugilist

        What is your point in relation to her rant blaming whole nation for heinous  criminal act  committed by  sick maniac and terrorist.

  2. Tia Will

    Jerry

    Frankly I believe that  this article  should no be published on the Vanguard at all for the above reason.”

    So would you deny freedom of speech to this author because her views differ from yours ? The reality as manifested by multiple acts of mass violence committed by people of differing ethnicities, religions, political beliefs through the past few decades speaks to the violence tolerant nature of our society. I believe it is this surrender to violence as our societal norm to which Gloria was speaking, and although these are not the words I would have chosen, I agree with her underlying point that until we, as a society choose to actively eschew violence, this is what we will reap.

     

      1. Justice4All

        Wow… what a incredibly ignorant statement. Gloria is an amazing woman, who has dedicated her life to making life better for marginalized communities. She is NOTHING like that hate mongering buffoon.

      2. Tia Will

        Jerry

        Pastor is not different than author of this article”

        Really. I have never ever heard Gloria calling for anyone to be taken out and shot. She has never rejoiced in killing as he claimed that he does. So how exactly do you see a mother whose son was badly beaten for being gay as the same as a so called pastor who promotes killing homosexuals ?

    1. Jerry Waszczuk

      Ms. Tia

      If you like to  associate yourself with gay haters and terrorists than enjoy the free speech of Gloria Partida.

      Partida is free to talk but I don’t believe that people on this forum appreciate to  be labeled as supporters of terror and hate crime

      It is same as saying;

      ” The hate in Davis against Chancellor Katehi  was held in all of us and channeled through  Tia Will . The hate in  Davis  was so big it needed an empty space to flow through; someone without compassion, hope, love, understanding. The question we should ask is how do we allow it.

      1. Tia Will

        If you like to  associate yourself with gay haters and terrorists than enjoy the free speech of Gloria Partida.”

        Do you believe that Gloria Partida is a gay hater or a terrorist?  I do support her, her son, and all of those who recognize the destructiveness of those who use violence as a means of oppression, and all who do not stand up and speak out against it regardless of the identity of the perpetrator.

        1. Jerry Waszczuk

          Ms. Tia

          I don’t know  who is Gloria Parida and I don’t  care to know who is she and don’t associate myself with people who are fueled by extreme propaganda are  demonizing  entire population .  I think I made myself clear and I no need to elaborate further on this subject.

        2. The Pugilist

          That’s part of the problem.  This is a community site.  You don’t live in this community.  You don’t know the people who live in this community.  And yet you want to wade into an area of which you are ignorant and judge people you don’t know.  And when people call you on it, you bow out and leave.

    2. South of Davis

      Tia wrote:

      > So would you deny freedom of speech to this author

      > because her views differ from yours ?

      Not publishing in the Vanguard is not the same as “denying free speech” (just like not having a “God Hates F***” bumper sticker is not “denying the free speech of the Westboro Baptist Church)…

  3. Marina Kalugin

    Marina Kalugin
    June 13 at 5:10pm ·

    from a friend… a lovely tribute to her friend…worth sharing…

    Robert Schmorr was the choir director at my church when I was small. Some of you would have known him from school, instead – he was vocal director, I believe, for a number of the all-school musicals. The Wizard of Oz being the last.

    The Wizard of Oz is one of my strongest associations with him. He had played the Wicked Witch of the West in some big production (not the high school one), and was always willing to oblige in terrifying us kids with his witch’s cackle.

    I can’t quite zoom into his panel on the AIDS quilt well enough to see for sure, but it looks like his iconic Wicked Witch of the West picture is there, green skin and all.

    He was sick for a while, and stepped down as choir director. I saw him one more time after that, one evening when my mom was meeting him outside the church for some reason and had me with her. He was clearly weak, and using a walker. He died not long after that, in 1989, of pneumonia I was told.

    When I was in 7th grade, my math teacher, Karen Beatty, was teaching us about AIDS. She asked who of us knew someone who had died of AIDS. A number of people raised their hands. I didn’t. I mentioned this to my mom later, and she told me about Mr. Schmorr.

    Mr. Schmorr wrote a hymn for children’s choirs. He hoped to have it published, but I can’t find any evidence it ever was. I still remember it, and it comes to me at times like this, when there’s so much division…

    Let the children sing their song to me
    Learn from them the joy of God’s perfect harmony
    Music helps us see what we all should see
    That we all are the children of God, of God

    Song can be prayer, song is praise
    When to Him
    Our voices we raise
    Jesus is the tune, and we the chords, of God’s word

    Let the children sing their song to me
    Learn from them the joy of God’s perfect harmony
    Music helps us see what we all should see
    That we all are the children of God, of God

    Robert Schmorr (1929-1989)

    I’m so tired of hate.

  4. Justice4All

    I dont think there is any confusion here, or at least there isnt for me. Sure Jerry and BP may not like what Gloria says in this article, but that doesnt mean that she isnt correct. There is a collective intolerance in American society towards people who identify outside of the gender binary. That intolerance/hate/ignorance or whatever you want to call it creates the space for these extremists to exist. In that sense, we are all responsible for closing off the space for that intolerance to grow. That means upstanding, not bystanding, it means changing institutional discrimination in government policy.

    1. Barack Palin

      So I we have another mind reader on the V.  I actually like much of what Gloria wrote but think her line ” The hate in Orlando was held in all of us and channeled through Omar Mateen” is bullsheeeet.

       

      1. The Pugilist

        I think you’re missing just how far things have come in the last ten to twenty years.  I think a lot of us have had to retain our thinking on the subject.  But there remains a lot of fear manifested as hate.

      2. Jerry Waszczuk

        Ms. Barack

        It is sounds like  whole nation is responsible for 9/11 where 3000 people died and probably many of them were gays as well . I don’t  believe this .

        1. Barack Palin

          Jerry, you have to understand the liberal mindset.  They’re self loathing and apologetic and think everything bad that happens is somehow their fault.  Just look at our President, he’s a fine example.

  5. Tia Will

    BP

    Self loathing, unwarranted apology and false acceptance of responsibility are not the products of a compassionate, caring and peace loving spirit. I believe that Gloria likely understands this while it is unlikely from your posts that you do.

  6. dlemongello

    I don’t mean to speak for Gloria or anyone else. I think we all have anger, we all have fears and those emotions can be explored and managed or left alone can erupt into hate and violence.  I would go further and say those of us who have good support systems and education have a better shot at managing those tendencies that, again, exist in all of us. And if we could get that support from our society as a whole, especially those who may not get that support from their families or friends, I think that is what Gloria means when she says we all have some culpability here.

    Gloria is am amazing woman who has never reacted with hate against the hate that was directed violently toward her own son.  Some people preach, Gloria practices love in the most difficult of situations. That does not mean she did not deal with the situation, she met it head on with the opposite of what was dealt to her family member. She met it with constructive rather than destructive purpose.

    Gloria, if you want to discuss any of my thoughts here I’m all ears.

    1. Tia Will

      South of Davis

      Not publishing in the Vanguard is not the same as “denying free speech”

      I respectfully disagree. The Vanguard publishes articles from independent writers. Our policy is that we will post any article that meets the established guidelines which were drawn up by the editorial board taking into account the suggestions from a number of participants on this blog. To not honor that commitment to post all qualifying articles seems to me to be an act of censorship and by breeching our own code, a case of a denial of free speech.

      And with regard to both the hate spewing pastor as well as the members of the Westboro Baptist Church. It is hard to find anyone whose message I despise more, and yet I still stand in defense of their right to free speech, no matter how odious.

    2. Tia Will

      South of Davis

      Not publishing in the Vanguard is not the same as “denying free speech”

      I respectfully disagree. The Vanguard publishes articles from independent writers. Our policy is that we will post any article that meets the established guidelines which were drawn up by the editorial board taking into account the suggestions from a number of participants on this blog. To not honor that commitment to post all qualifying articles seems to me to be an act of censorship and by breeching our own code, a case of a denial of free speech.

      And with regard to both the hate spewing pastor as well as the members of the Westboro Baptist Church. It is hard to find anyone whose message I despise more, and yet I still stand in defense of their right to free speech, no matter how odious.

  7. Tia Will

    Jerry

     think I made myself clear and I no need to elaborate further on this subject.”

    That seems fair. And it makes me wonder why you are continuing to comment on this subject.

    1. Jerry Waszczuk

      Where did you see me another comment . This was the Pug’s post who backed up your compassion .
      Ms. Tia
      I don’t know  who is Gloria Parida and I don’t  care to know who is she and don’t associate myself with people who are fueled by extreme propaganda are  demonizing  entire population .  I think I made myself clear and I no need to elaborate further on this subject.

  8. Tia Will

    Rich

    So back to the preacher in Sacramento: I don’t think he is yet as evil as Mr. Mateen. However, if someone who heard his screed acted on it by harming one or more gay people, then I can see prosecuting him for inciting violence, much the same way this father likely did by the way he raised his son.”

    My biggest concern about this is the possibility of there being children in the congregation who could be influenced by the hatred being preached from their pulpit. I am hard pressed to differentiate this kind of hatred from that of the extremist imam’s who preach jihad. Extremism, terrorism and willingness to use violence to promote one’s own ends whether political, religious, economic or social is not within the purview of any one group although it is currently fashionable to lay it all at the feet of one religious group and pretend that the rest of us are somehow immune.

    The actions of Timothy McVeigh, the Colombine shooters, Lanza, and Dylan Storm Roof should be enough to illustrate that this is not just about one religion. As dlemongello pointed out, no one escapes the capacity for violence. Some deliberately choose a path of peace while others give in to these hate driven destructive actions. And yes, I do believe that it is the responsibility to care and protect others through our own example to the best of our ability.

     
  9. TrueBlueDevil

    We shouldn’t turn a blind eye to what the vicious killer said himself, what his spiritual teachers said, and what his family and culture teach.

    This author wrote: “We can discuss the intersections of gun control, mental health, Islamophobia and homophobia; intellectually, politically, spiritually.”

    This gunman said he was motivated by ISIS, he reportedly pledged allegiance to ISIS on his 911 calls during his massacre. He also reportedly attended a speech by a local Muslim religious leader in Florida two years ago who said vile things about our gay brothers and sisters, and said that killing gays was a merciful act. “An act of mercy.”

    Sharia law is the basis for some for this vile hatred. Ten countries (according to the Washington Post) (all Muslim?) assign the death penalty for homosexuality or homosexual acts. Gay folks are routinely thrown off of roofs or killed in various ways in these countries … Iraq, Qatar, Yemen, Iran, et al.

    Our nation, and Western society, are overwhelmingly accepting. Enough with this misplaced analysis. These same 14th century believers treat women just as bad, and Christian women are often raped and sold into slavery.

    His Father – an Afghan Muslim – apparently taught him these anti-gay beliefs. I’m told Sharia Law is adhered to by a vast majority of Afghans. Not Californians, not Americans, not Chilean-, Mexican-, or Irish-Americans.

    For those with a curious mind, google Cologne (Koln) Germany and the New Years sexual assaults.

    This is not a condemnation of one religion or culture, but there does seem to be a significant problem with radical Islamic terrorism. So whether that is 1% of the faith or 5%, it is also a problem that is festering all across Western Europe as well. Google is your friend.

    1. Don Shor

      This gunman said he was motivated by ISIS, he reportedly pledged allegiance to ISIS on his 911 calls during his massacre.

      From an analyst on the PBS News Hour:

      One day, he claims to be a member of Hezbollah, which is a Shiite organization. Another day, his family is connected to al-Qaida. And then he praised just before he was killed an individual who was a suicide bomber for al-Nusra, an entity that is not in good terms with ISIS.

      And then he gave his regards and admiration for the Boston bombers, two individuals who have nothing to do with ISIS. ISIS in this case appeared to have no idea about what this guy did. They didn’t control his operation. They don’t appear to be directing that operation.

      And even their alleged claim of responsibility was based on circular media, was based on what they are gathering of U.S. media regarding that operation. So now we have a case of an individual who went to do his crime and at the last second he said, oh, by the way, I am ISIS.

      This doesn’t seem to indicate any kind of coherent Islamist or jihadist philosophy. Hezbollah and Isis have about as much in common as Ulter unionists with the IRA; they’re both the same religion, but that’s about it. From all we know now, he seems to have been very much a lone wolf actor, about as ideological as Dylan Roof or Adam Lanza. And we have the anecdotes about gay interest as well. It seems a lot of people jumped to a lot of conclusions about this man before we had the facts.
      Link to PBS episode: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/finding-the-terror-needles-in-the-domestic-haystack/

      1. TrueBlueDevil

        One news program said as he planned his attack(s), he did frequent more jihad websites.

        High school mates said he was joyful when 9/11 happened.

        Radical Islam teaches these kooks to hide their actions, to blend in. It’s in their own training manuals.

        I’m sure mental illness could be a part of the equation, but I wouldn’t blame this on the west.

        1. dlemongello

          I would not consider someone who tells a coworker many times over that he wants to kill people, or beats his wife, as “blending in”. He seems to be a blend of mentally ill, lone wolf wanna be, angry, violent person who had no actual associations with any particular group and a family history that did not help either.

        2. hpierce

          So, you’ve read ‘Radical Islam training manuals’? If so turn yourself in, as quickly as possible… I don’t want you within 500 miles of me…

        3. TrueBlueDevil

          hpierce, it is well known that their jihad training manuals say to blend in, don’t make a fuss, etc., just like the couple in San Bernadino (sp?) and the 9/11 hijackers.

          1. Don Shor

            The Orlando story doesn’t fit your narrative. It’s too complicated, with too many possible motives and factors. I suggest you stop trying to judge every mass shooting through this narrow lens.

        4. wdf1

          TBD:  Radical Islam teaches these kooks to hide their actions, to blend in. It’s in their own training manuals.

          You might be on to something.  I just read this on the internet, and you know how credible the internet is, especially when Google is my friend:

          “Does anyone see the coincidence of attack on Islam and the fashionable trend for men to have beards in our country ?”

          I’m now keeping a closer eye on the folks from Duck Dynasty, ZZ-Top, Jim Gaffigan, and Santa Claus.

    2. hpierce

      Yes  and that so-called “Baptist minister” in Sac called for not only no concern for those killed in Orlando [in his opinion, ‘just desserts’], expressed regret that MORE were not killed, might condemn those who aided the survivors (doctors, nurses, other first responders, etc., etc.)…  I am Christian, and strongly disavow that sick and profoundly un-Christian view.  Almost all American Muslims who believe, and are not just using the ‘label’, abhor and reject that ‘Baptist minister’ (if he is indeed one) point of view.

      So, what are you saying really, about those of the Muslim faith?

      Do you espouse any faith, other than in yourself?

      1. TrueBlueDevil

        Dozens or hundreds of gay individuals have been killed due to Sharia Law… in the same time period, how many Muslims have been killed due to the supposed “Islamaphobia”? Zero.

        1. TrueBlueDevil

          It gets complicated. We wouldn’t be there but for 9/11. I wasn’t gung ho on going into Iraq, but we finally had it under control … and Obama refused to negotiate a standing forces agreement, which let everything go to heck, which then requires us to go back in militarily. Bad call by Obama, he didn’t secure the peace.

  10. vanguardfan

    “The hate in Orlando was held in all of us and channeled through Omar Mateen. The hate in Orlando was so big it needed an empty space to flow through….”

    I understand these statements to reflect the fact that all of our lives are inter-connected, that all of us can or do or have held hate for other people or ideas (as much as we may wish or endeavor not to), and that while Omar Mateen made the decision to do what he did, he did so in the context of a complex society to which we all belong.

    Thank you for your example of humility, Ms. Partida, and your reminder of the converse:  that we all have the power to make positive changes in this world.  And thank you especially for the very important work you do here in Davis.

  11. TrueBlueDevil

    Two as yet unmentioned points on this topic.

    The New York Times had an editorial today which blamed this massacre on the GOP. How ridiculous… political correct idiocy again rears its head at the Times.

    Secondly, there is a complex, twisted sexuality that goes on in some (many?) of these Middle Eastern countries. An older friend of mine who worked in Lebanon decades ago would tell me some stories that were almost incomprehensible. He found it the same way in the liberated 1960s from San Francisco, traveling back centuries to work there. I’ve also heard similar tales from women raised in India.

    Pederasty was at the root of both stories.

    The hypocrisy of child abuse in many Muslim countries
    Shaista Gohir

    “Some Muslims are fond of condemning western morality – alcoholism, nudity, premarital sex and homosexuality often being cited as examples. But Muslims do not have a monopoly on morality. In the west, child marriages and sex with children are illegal. Unfortunately, the same cannot be said for many Muslim countries.
    “I recently saw the documentary on the Dancing Boys of Afghanistan. It exposed an ancient custom called “bacha bazi” (boy for play), where rich men buy boys as young as 11 from impoverished families for sexual slavery. The boys are dressed in women’s clothes and made to dance and sing at parties, before being carted away by the men for sex. Owning boys is considered a symbol of status and one former warlord boasted of having up to 3,000 boys over a 20-year period, even though he was married, with two sons. The involvement of the police and inaction of the government means this form of child prostitution is widespread.

    “The moral hypocrisy is outrageous in a country where homosexuality is not only strictly forbidden but savagely punished, even between two consenting adults. However, men who sodomise young boys are not considered homosexuals or paedophiles. The love of young boys is not a phenomenon restricted to Afghanistan; homosexual pederasty is common in neighbouring Pakistan, too. In my view, repression of sexuality and extreme gender apartheid is to blame….”
    http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2010/apr/25/middle-east-child-abuse-pederasty

    1. TrueBlueDevil

      Twelve hours and still no approval for the (above) reference to medieval practices in Muslim countries?

      [moderator] Thought I released that one hours ago.

  12. Tia Will

    TrueBlueDevil

    I wasn’t gung ho on going into Iraq, but we finally had it under control “

    I do not believe that we have any right to “have under control” a country that had not attacked us. A country which was not threat to the US but on which we made a “pre-emptive strike”.

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