Parents, Students and Community Leaders Come Before the Board Pushing for Ethnic Studies

Two weeks ago, Melissa Moreno spoke to the Davis School Board about the need for ethnic studies during their discussion of the LCAP (Local Control and Accountability Plan).  At the time, both the board and district acknowledged general support for the addition of ethnic studies, but they seem to want to wait until Spring 2020 when state guidelines come down.

On Thursday of this week, Ms. Moreno was back, but this time she had a whole host of community members with her pushing for ethic studies.  The diverse group ranged from elected officials like Lucas Frerichs and Gloria Partida, to parents, community activists and students.

Tracy Tomasky said that that morning she was talking to a friend saying she was coming to support ethnic studies, and “she quizzically looked at me and said, they don’t already have it?”  She talked to another friend who said, “Why not, why don’t they have a comprehensive ethnic studies program?”

She noted that both in the district’s “We Belong Program” and its Mission Statement it seems to prioritize the goals of ethnic studies.  She said, “From my perspective Ethnic Studies rises to a critical priority as it is aligned with all the things that you espouse.”

Blair Howard, a teacher in the district, said he teaches at King High, and said that he struggles as a history teacher to teach the broad scope of everything that happens in US History.  “For many of my students, what actually excites them is when they can see themselves in the curriculum,” he said.  “Even with a revised (curriculum) for the framework of social studies that recently came… World History is basically Western Civilization, it’s very Eurocentric.”

That leaves it to the teachers to balance out the material, he said, “which takes a lot of work sometimes to decenter the history instruction.”

Anoosh Jorjorian noted that when she went to school decades ago in Sacramento, “I was one of the few brown kids at the school.  The question I would get consistently is ‘what are you?’  Which is not a very nice question to get.  I would have to explain that I’m Armenian and Filipino.  1980s Sacramento, no one knew what an Armenian or a Filipino was.”

She said, “It would have been clearer if I had said I was a Martian.”  She said, “I would have anticipated that by this time, that that knowledge would be more widespread.  We live in California, we’re an incredibly mixed state…  This is incredibly important for all our students.”

Emily Henderson said, “I acknowledge that over the years many people have worked in our local classrooms to come together in this room to further the goals of racial equity and inclusion in our schools.  Tonight I’m asking you to help us take some next steps.”

She said, “Ethnic studies is critical to the well-being of our students, our community, our country, and our world.”  She works with Acme Theater Compnay students from across the district and “I’m sad to say that almost every day I hear stories from these youth about the hurtful actions and statements about race that they experience on DJUSD campuses.

“It happened last week, it happened today at lunch and it happened halfway through sixth period,” she said.  “I struggle with what to say to them.  The best I can come with is sorry, most adults are like me, we are terrified to talk about race, we are scared, we are miseducated, and a lot of (us) pretend that history didn’t happen and that awful stuff isn’t being perpetuated.”

Juliet Beck said that she’s organized two workshops in Davis to help parents learn to talk to their kids about race and racial differences.  “There was a huge demand for these workshops,” she said.  “It is clear that there is a demand and a need for these types of discussions and trainings that can serve as a catalyst for ongoing conversations and ultimately a shift in an overarching culture of white privilege and implicit bias that is here and operating in Davis.”

Lupita Torres said, “Our communities are invisibilized in the dominant culture.  We don’t get talked about unless something really big happens.”  She said that she didn’t learn her history until she was 19 years old.  “I didn’t know I had a history and I don’t want that to happen to my daughter or anybody else’s children.”

Her daughter spoke as well: “I feel it is not right that the schools teach about Columbus and don’t teach a single thing about native history or Chicana or Chicano history.  Schools only teach about white history – I’m not saying that it is bad, but please teach other history.”

Lolita Echeveria-Grecco said that at her daughter’s school, Cesar Chavez, her daughter’s friend was “saying something racist.”  “He was saying something about Brown people,” she explained.  “I know this child and I know his family.  They’re not racist at all.”

She said but the child is very smart, “he’s picked up that we brown people are not represented at all in any of the school curriculum makes it easy to objectify us and make it easy to equate us to something of our color.”

She said, “It exemplifies the fact that we all need ethnic studies – not just the people who would be affected because of the color of their skin and because they’re not represented, because we all need to learn about each other.  It will help us move away from xenophobia.”

Cecilia Escamilla Greenwald was among the parents and community leaders who originally met with the district a year ago to push for ethnic studies.  She said they need to incorporate “ethnic studies into the everyday teachings” of the school district.

She told the board, “We know that you are committed to having an inclusive environment in our schools.”

Grace Bassett said, “We all need ethnic studies.  We should all be learning much more as far as the contributions of all communities and all peoples of this country.  Children of color, they want to see that their teachers are truly seeing them for their true potential and to see role models who look like them and who they can relate to.”

She called for both implicit bias and sensitivity training for all teachers and staff.

Lucas Frerichs said that, while he’s not a parent, “I am a proud product of the Davis Joint Unified School District.  I also care about what our children are taught and also what they should be taught.”

He said he was adding his voice for an ethnic studies curriculum across DJUSD.

A student at the high school said that when he heard about these ethnic studies courses, “I was really surprised.  I thought we already had them.”  He didn’t realize that they didn’t have them until the RSJ (Race and Social Justice) symposium they recently had.

“We are being limited and no one asked us students about how we felt about this,” he said.  He said that students at DJUSD are really smart, but they get too much credit for how smart they are.  “I’m white and both of my parents are white, and I haven’t ever faced racial discrimination but I see how my friends suffer from this.  I just had to come to the meeting and speak about this.”

He told of a student that came up to him with a racially insensitive joke.  “I’m white but it still affects me, it still affects everyone at our school,” he said.  “We have a white majority of students (at DHS) and we don’t have enough information on this.”

—David M. Greenwald reporting

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About The Author

David Greenwald is the founder, editor, and executive director of the Davis Vanguard. He founded the Vanguard in 2006. David Greenwald moved to Davis in 1996 to attend Graduate School at UC Davis in Political Science. He lives in South Davis with his wife Cecilia Escamilla Greenwald and three children.

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  1. Ron Oertel

    “For many of my students, what actually excites them is when they can see themselves in the curriculum,” he said.”

    I’ve never “seen myself” in a curriculum.  I’m not particularly “excited” when I learn about what any group of people (who share a skin color) have done – good or bad.  The “founding fathers” of this country are as foreign (or familiar) to me, as anyone is.

    History is full of examples of both good and bad, which is not the “sole ownership” of one skin color.  An example would be the impact of the mission system on the native populations in California (prior to the time that it became part of America) – which has been taught and acknowledged for some time.

    1. Ron Oertel

      Pushing this a little further, is it almost a form of racism (or at least bias), to encourage anyone to “see themselves” in others (who happen to share the same race, gender, sexual orientation, etc.)?

      Is that really necessary for anyone to succeed – even if their own attributes happen to be in the minority? (If so, how might the relative success of Asian populations in school be explained, for example? Sort of a stereotype, itself.)

      1. Craig Ross

        How is it racist to make sure everyone’s history and culture are included in our textbooks?  How is it racist to suggest that a Eurocentric view of history excludes the history of the people of color living in our nation and this community?

        This is actually grounded in psychology as well: “How can a child aspire to be something he or she doesn’t know exists for him? It is important for Black children to see positive reflections of themselves.”

        1. Ron Oertel

          Craig:  How about responding to my questions, before posing your own?  If you look at those questions again, you might see that it leads to a different (almost opposite) possible conclusion than what you’re implying – in several ways.

          Also, why are you singling out black children, regarding ethnic studies?

        2. Ron Oertel

          Do “non-white” persons understand what it’s like to be “white” (or male, or heterosexual for that matter), or do they just assume that they know?

          How might various disabilities (or lack thereof) enter into the equation, as well?

          (That’s an honest question.)

        3. Craig Ross

          Yes I think I have a good understanding of how white folks think.  For white folks unless they go into Chinatown or Harlem, their race is invisible 99 percent of the time.  For people of color, especially in the hard days, it’s good to know someone else has been through what you’ve gone through and come out the other side.

          Since this is about the school board – Cindy Pickett is a great example for people of color.  Part Filipino, Part Black, she got her doctorate, become an Associate Dean, and got elected to the school board.  Positive role models are so important for students of color because in places like Davis, you see a lot of people in positions of power that you just can’t empathize with.

        4. Ron Oertel

          Craig:  “Positive role models are so important for students of color because in places like Davis, you see a lot of people in positions of power that you just can’t empathize with.”

          O.K. – thanks.  I guess it’s unfortunate if we (as a people) can’t “empathize” with someone who doesn’t share our particular characteristics.

        5. Ron Oertel

          Craig:  “Yes I think I have a good understanding of how white folks think.  For white folks unless they go into Chinatown or Harlem, their race is invisible 99 percent of the time.”

          I can tell you from personal experience (and observation), that this comment is 100% false. Perhaps someone who claims to be “non-white” wouldn’t understand this, or would actively resist (or even ridicule) it.

        6. Ron Oertel

          But truth be told, even some “white” folks don’t acknowledge it. (Instead, some simply move out of areas where their kids are in danger solely because of their skin color, in public schools or on public transit.) To places such as Davis, Rocklin, Roseville, Folsom, etc.

          Davis is different than where I grew up.

          Now, what any of this has to do with ethnic studies hasn’t been explained.

        7. Ron Oertel

          Craig:  “Yes I think I have a good understanding of how white folks think.”

          Prey tell, please share how “white folks think”. (Really? You don’t think there’s a range in this – possibly even on this very page?)

          This kind of statement is bordering on racism, itself.

        8. Craig Ross

          You’re being flippant but you’re also missing a key point – I’m willing to bet you that I have far more friends who are white and who I converse with on this subject than you have friends who are people of color.

        9. Ron Oertel

          I wouldn’t assume that, but more importantly – you made the statement and are now trying to turn it into a ridiculous and meaningless “contest”.

          Do you not see how difficult it is to engage in a real discussion, regarding this issue?  (Unfortunately, you’re not alone, regarding the beliefs you apparently harbor.)

          I’m still waiting for an explanation, regarding how “white folks think”. 😉

        10. Ron Oertel

          The “contest”, again?  Regardless, you’d be surprised, if you knew the answer.  I’m not willing to divulge any more personal information.

          If you’re asking me if someone who is African-American, for example, would be noticed in Davis, I’d say that the answer is generally “yes”.

        11. Alan Miller

          I’m willing to bet you that I have far more friends who are white and who I converse with on this subject than you have friends who are people of color.

          So your saying, “Some of your best friends are white”.

        12. Ron Oertel

          Alan:  I think I’ve already touched the “third rail” enough for today.  Looking forward to some more responses from Craig, though!

    2. Tia Will


      I am going to try to answer your questions without invoking race at all. I will draw on my personal experience as you have. I grew up in an all white very conservative community. We had a strict gender role separation. Women professionals were almost exclusively nurses or teachers. It is very hard to conceive of becoming you do not know exists on a personal basis. There were no women MDs in our town nor in my mother’s daytime programs nor on the Dr. So & So programs. I was told repeatedly in overt and more subtle ways that women were not MDs. I took the necessary courses and applied anyway out of sheer determination. I met my first female MD during my interview at UCD. All the rest of my interviewers were men. UCD was my only acceptance. From personal experience, I understand the importance for young people to see “people like them” in all sorts of different roles.  This may not be so apparent to some white males who have not lived it, being in the historically dominant group, but it is completely apparent to me.

      1. Ron Oertel

        Tia:  Thanks.  But when you grew up, women were also actively discouraged from becoming doctors, etc.  It wasn’t just a lack of role models, although that was the result.

        Things have certainly changed for women, and quite quickly as well. (At least, within recent history.)

        Weren’t women prevented from voting, long-after African American men were? (I can’t recall.)

        The things that human beings do to each other never ceases to amaze me.

        1. Tia Will


          With regard to voting privileges, black men were first allowed to vote by the 15th Amendment in 1870. Shortly thereafter, whites, particularly in the South set about to prevent that from happening. Voting for women was very different being established on a state by state basis and not ratified as the 19th Amendment in 1920. Although many men were reluctant, there was no similar cultural push back to white women voting similar to the voter suppression of blacks which continues to this day. If you doubt this, check out the recent legislative moves in Florida.

  2. Nick Buxton

    Just a thought, but have you considered the possibility that the reason you have ‘never seen yourself’ in the curriculum is because you are white? The reality in this country is that in a culture, society, legal, political and economic system that historically and structurally advantages white people that we never need to see ourselves as we benefit from these advantages. Our whiteness is invisible precisely because it serves us and because it is all present. Rather than dismiss this or defensively react against it, try listening to people of color about their experiences and what the impacts are when your own stories, histories, cultures are made invisible. Conversely what happens when those stories are made visible in schools through course such as Ethnic Studies. The truth is we are all enriched when education is broadened to include everyone and when we are taught appreciation of different cultures, traditions and histories.

    1. Ron Oertel

      Nick:  Yes, the thought has occurred to me.  Regarding “dismissing this or defensively reacting against it“, this type of erroneous conclusion is precisely the reason that some avoid honest discussions.

      Regarding “white privilege”, is that what ethnic studies is actually about? Maybe I’m confused as to what the goal of it is.

  3. Hiram Jackson

    I had a kind of “standard” U.S. history in school in the late 70’s/early 80’s in Texas, and  at the time I imagined it was relatively complete.  Since then I’ve discovered many gaps in my original history education.  For instance last month I watched the PBS documentary series on the African-American experience during Reconstruction Era, from 1865 to the 1920s.  I didn’t know a lot of that history, and I think it would have been helpful for understanding better how the Civil Rights movement developed.  It also gave context for the nature  of more contemporary racial prejudice and racial bias today.  In retrospect I think there was definitely some “whitewashing” going on in my history textbooks.  I see ethnic studies as a way to get a more complete picture of American history and culture.

    1. Ron Oertel

      I find some of these type of programs interesting, as well.  Like you, my education was not limited to K-12.

      But, I suspect that my K-12 education (in California) was already different than yours, as well.

    2. Hiram Jackson

      [continued from original comment above]

      …and I think had I grown up African-American, I could begin to imagine being upset at not being taught that Reconstruction history.

      1. Ron Oertel

        Hiram:  I can imagine being upset at not learning about such things regardless of what skin color I have.

        Or, about the history of the missions in California (and its impact on native populations), the similar history of Spanish conquest and its impact on native populations in South America, etc.

        I guess there’s only so much time and resources available in history courses, to cover all of the topics.  (“Good”, and “bad”.) (Especially “resources” – in the form of funding for public schools.)

        Especially when there’s so many other subjects to learn (e.g., STEM) – which might lead someone to a well-compensated job someday!  😉


      2. Hiram Jackson

        Ron Oertel: “I guess there’s only so much time and resources available in history courses, to cover all of the topics.”

        True, but there are still choices made about what to teach and what not to teach.  Where I grew up, I think the intentional choice was made that grade school history should not upset white people.  If the topic of the lynching era had been raised in school, surely some white student’s grandparents or great uncles/aunts would have been implicated in some such deed, and the student and family would have been made uncomfortable.  And they most surely would have complained.

        So we didn’t talk about those things, and most of a younger generation has never known the extent, persistence, and brutality of African-American oppression that extended into the first decades of the 20th century.  What later problems could have been avoided with a more honest discussion of that history?

        1. Ron Oertel

          “Where I grew up, I think the intentional choice was made that grade school history should not upset white people.”

          Definitely a different experience than I had, in California.

          Given the limited resources that you acknowledge, do you believe that California is making incorrect choices regarding what to teach (vs. what not to teach), today?

        2. Bill Marshall

          Hiram… I understand a bit about what you’re saying, particularly about the “reconstruction era”, and also the rise of the KKK in the early 20th century… in HS history, we had a 2nd year teacher, and there were three of us who were constantly either correcting him, or filling in ‘gaps’… he was creative, tho’ and assigned us to come up with history ‘units’, and present them in class…

          So, when we got to the reconstruction era, we three did research, and did a presentation of what a KKK rally looked like, to give our classmates a ‘feel’ of what was being spewed in those times… we upset those who didn’t want to deal with the facts of the hatred/bigotry spewed, and those so liberal (I and my two friends were very liberal, but were into facts, and role-playing) that they thought we were ‘advocating’ the bigotry…  so, the three of us and the teacher all got called into the “Principal’s office” to ‘explain ourselves’… we did… straight out… our teacher thought we did very well, showing the ‘flavor’ of the history (he was very ‘liberal’, too, and understood what we were doing…)… we all got ‘a pass’, but also an admonition that we should not “ruffle feathers”… we’re talking 1971, San Mateo CA…  in 2019 Davis, we might have gotten a 3-day suspension.

          But, we spoke truth accurately, in an academic environment…

          As someone who loved/loves history, I knew who Crispus Attucks was, and the significance of his life and death by the time I was 14… without cheating and going on the net, how many of those reading this know who Crispus was?  His race?

  4. Ron Oertel

    Truth be told, it seems to me that active discrimination, hostility, and outright violence was/is an even bigger issue for the LGBT community, in recent history.  (And, was barely even mentioned when I was in school – even though I grew up in an area where that community had a significant presence.)

    Didn’t a majority of California voters reject gay marriage, not so long ago?  What’s that a sign of, if not outright (and legalized, at the time) hostility toward a group of people? (And, not just originating from a single “skin color”, either.)

    I can only imagine how things are in other parts of the country (or world), regarding continued hostility toward this group of people. (Sometimes, it’s still in the news.)

    I guess this isn’t part of “ethnic studies”.

    1. Ron Oertel

      Just thought I’d post this article, which shows that discrimination against the LGBT community wasn’t (and isn’t) limited to those with lighter skin.  This is the first article that popped up when I searched for this, as I recall this being an issue. Looks like the article is from 2011.

      “Poll: 60% of African-Americans Do Not Support Gay Marriage”

      I guess no one lives in “another’s world”, but are sometimes willing to force their vision upon others. (The reason I bring this up is because I think some purposefully ignore issues such as this – solely because of “skin color”.)

  5. Tia Will

    “I didn’t realize that the world belonged to me”

    Not you personally. But surely you know from history classes that the vast majority of US lawmakers, judges, doctors, and other community leaders have historically been white males. It was their decision making that has shaped the world we all live in. That our society has largely been shaped to suit the interests of the demographic you happen to belong to has had profound effects on how all of us navigate our world.

    1. Ron Oertel

      Yes – that is true, regarding the United States.  (Of course, it’s not “world history” or “the world itself”, but that’s another subject.)

      What part of this is “ethnic studies” intended to “correct”?  (Honest question.)

    2. Bill Marshall

      But surely you know from history classes that the vast majority of US lawmakers, judges, doctors, and other community leaders have historically been white males.

      Except for those who were Jewish or Catholic (particularly, “the Irish”).  Perhaps of mutually shared discrimination, those Jewish or Catholic folk were the greatest supporters of the Civil Rights movement… their ‘blood’ was spilled in the south, along with their Black brethren (of all faiths)… read your history… as to the Civil Rights movement, most of the strong advocates were “people of faith”… a fact that will probably NEVER be taught in the public school system…


  6. Eric Gelber

    I’m not sure how anyone can question the value of ethnic studies, particularly in a majority minority state like California. Including ethnic studies in the curriculum in no way diminishes the importance of focusing on historical/sociological and cultural competency issues of other communities—e.g., LGBTQ issues, disability issues. The bottom line is that ethnic studies can be empirically shown to improve educational outcomes. (E.g.,

    1. Ron Oertel

      Immediately noticed this:

      “Numerous content analyses of textbooks have found an ongoing marginalization of scholarship by and about African Americans, Latino/as, Native Americans, and Asian Americans.”

      Asian Americans are “behind” other groups – including “whites”?

      In all honesty, I’m not sure what I think about “ethnic studies”. It wasn’t a particular “subject”, when I was in grade school. (Even though it seems as though some of the concepts behind it were discussed.)

      I do think, however, that choices have to be made in a time of limited resources.

    2. Bill Marshall

      Eric… we may or not be on the same wavelength…

      Algebra classes should acknowledge Persian contributions… math, in general, should acknowledge its Hindu and Arabic contributions to the numbers/systems we use today… biology, when discussing blood typing, etc., should acknowledge Charles Drew… history classes should acknowledge Frederick Douglass, and Booker T Washington, and ‘Molly Pitcher’, Clara Barton… ag classes should acknowledge George Washington Carver… Chemistry/physics should acknowledge Marie Curie… etc., etc., etc.

      But where we may differ is focusing on the ethnicity/gender, rather than our hu-person-ity (to be PC)… my experience is that many ethnic studies approaches have been to tear down one race, one gender, to build up another… not particularly helpful, IMHO… my kids have Asian, Black, Filipino, Mexican, etc. co-workers and friends, as do my spouse and I… but we define them as co-workers and friends who happen to be X, not our X friends and co-workers.  An important nuance, and one I support as a goal.

      Am pretty sure some will say “you don’t get it”… they may be right, maybe not…

  7. Ron Oertel

    I will say, however, that I’m pretty sure this discussion demonstrates a range in the way that “white people think” – in reference to another commenter. (Perhaps a course is needed to address that type of thinking?)

    1. Ron Oertel

      I’m thinking that might be a good book title, as well.  Or perhaps, “a guide to understanding white people”.

      (If I ever figure out what “they” think.)

  8. Ron Oertel

    “. . .  my experience is that many ethnic studies approaches have been to tear down one race, one gender, to build up another… not particularly helpful, IMHO…”

    I’m going to push this a little further.  As long as some have the view expressed above (including myself, at times), there will be some resistance to “ethnic studies”.  Regardless of whether or not it’s warranted.

    And, that’s probably unfortunate.

    But, telling people that they’re “wrong” (or that they can’t “see” something because of some attribute beyond their control, and which may even be irrelevant to understanding) is rarely a convincing argument. And yet, that seems to be the argument that some engage in.

  9. Bill Marshall

    If there is to be an “ethnic studies” program, rather than just acknowledging all the contributions to the sciences, culture, and general humanity, by many/all races, it should be honest… and, perhaps thorough…

    Slavery:  What cultures/ethnic groups (and some still do) had  slaves (laborers and/or sex slaves)?  And sold their slaves, their people, to other ethnic groups?  What ethnic groups started to end slavery?  Bigotry?  Which have made the most progress in that regard?

    Repression of thought/belief:  What cultures/ethnic groups worked hard to remove restrictions as to freedom of speech, freedom of belief?  Which did not/have not?

    Ethnic studies/ethnic awareness/ethnic respect is not inherently good nor bad… the way it could be presented can well be divisive and evil.  Positive, or negative… but it should be the WHOLE truth… not biased towards or against any group.  And always acknowledging the positive contributions of folk, irrespective of ethnicity, gender, skin color, faith system, etc.  The ‘role model’ thing.

    The historical Hebrews/Jews had slaves… they also had/have strong laws as to how they are to treated (humanely), and, as I recall, every 7 years (jubilee years), slaves/indentured servants were freed… the Bedouin and the historic Hebrew/Jews welcomed strangers and made sure they were shelter, fed, and cared for… “do this, as you were once strangers in a strange land” [and the “land” is getting stranger and stranger, see some folks’ views/comments re:  immigration, housing, homeless, etc.]  That is appropriate info for “ethnic studies”… all factual, well documented. Same values show up in Christian, Moslem texts, and many other faith systems…

    As a white male, in JrH attacked by a black kid because I am white, the day after MLK was assassinated, a Black VP made sure I was OK, then read his fellow Black the ‘riot act’, citing Dr MLK would be abhorred by his actions… my GGGF and his brother not only never owned slaves, but they ran a stop on the UGR in western PA, at risk to their reputations, finances and possibly liberty… so no one should dare try to guilt me about ‘all whites being responsible for slavery’… them’s fighting words… the tradition carried… Granddad, Dad, I, and my children have never had ‘black friends’… we have all had many friends who have been black, asian, native american, etc.  Note the nuance between a preceding adjective , and an ‘oh by the way’ statement of fact.  Which doesn’t come up, unless some third party brings it up…

    Ethnicity to me is a bit of background information, rarely needed, unless the other brings it up or is wrapped up in it (and yes, have known several, where their previous life experiences justify that – but as Billy Joel wrote, ‘I am an innocent man’)… am not saying there are not problems, am not saying that there aren’t true Troglodytes, mentally disturbed, whatever folk out there, and among us, even in Davis… they are… that’s an unfortunate reality, and I abhor it…

    I just resent being lumped in with those… particularly as a part of a curriculum…

    1. Bill Marshall

      I (we?) need to see what an “ethnic studies” curriculum would look like… as near as I can tell, we’re not there yet…

      A concept (which I have no inherent problem with) with no specifics… just know how past “ethnic studies” went… as taught @ UC level… dropped the class after 3rd meeting… the specifics of the instructor were bogus… inflammatory , and completely blaming white males… didn’t pursue…

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